LISBETH S. FRIED
2826 Provincial Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Tel: (734) 971-4017
2000 Ph.D. New York University (Hebrew and Judaic Studies)
Doctoral Dissertation: The Rise to Power of the Judaean Priesthood: The Impact of the Achaemenid Empire (B. A. Levine, Chair).
Major: Hebrew Bible (B. A. Levine);
Minor: History of the Jews in Late Antiquity (L. Schiffman)
1993 M. A. University of Michigan (Near Eastern Studies)
|2005 – Present||Visiting Scholar, Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan|
|2005 – 2013||Visiting Scholar, Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, University of Michigan|
|2001 – Present||Lecturer, Washtenaw Community College, Emeritus Program|
|2011, March & July||Invited lectures, Oxford University, UK. Graduate Seminar on the Aramaic Papyri as Elucidating Achaemenid Egypt. Workshop on Achaemenid Egypt.|
2002 – 2005
Visiting Scholar, Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan.
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Religion, Central Michigan University
Visiting Assistant Professor, Rothberg School, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
|2009-2015||Associate Editor for Ancient Near Eastern Religions, Routledge Dictionary of Ancient Mediterranean Religions, forthcoming.|
Co-Chair with Prof. Juha Pakkala: SBL Group Steering Committee: “Textual Growth: What Variant Editions of the Hebrew Bible Tell Us About Scribal
Activity in Antiquity,” Society of Biblical Literature.Ad hoc reviewer: Journal of Biblical Literature.
|2007 – 2009||Chair: Steering Committee -1st Esdras Consultation, Society of Biblical Literature|
Editorial Board: Journal of Biblical StudiesAd hoc reviewer: Journal of Biblical LiteratureAd hoc reviewer – Israel Science FoundationSteering Committee Persian Period Group, Society for Biblical Literature.
External Reviewer: Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses
Society of Biblical Literature; American Society for Oriental Research; American Oriental Society; Canadian Society of Biblical Studies; International Society for Iranian Studies; American Institute of Iranian Studies
Publications: (selected offprints)
Ezra, a new translation with Introduction and Commentary (Hebrew Bible Monographs Series; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press), in press.
Ezra and the Law in History and Tradition. Studies on Personalities of the Old Testament, James Crenshaw, series editor. (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press), 2014.
Was 1 Esdras First? An Investigation into the Priority and Nature of 1 Esdras. L.S. Fried, Ed. (Ancient Israel and Its Literature, 7; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature), 2011.
The Priest and the Great King: Temple Palace Relations in the Persian Empire. BJSUCSD
10 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2004).
No King in Judah? Mass Divorce in Judah and in Athens, in C. Waerzeggers and J. Silverman, eds., Political Memory in and after the Persian Period (Ancient Near Eastern Monographs; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature), in press.
Textual History of Ezra-Nehemiah, in Textual History of the Bible, Vol. 1 (ed. A. Lange and E. Tov; Leiden: Brill, 2015)
Exploitation of Depopulated Land in Achaemenid Judah, in M.L. Miller, E. Ben Zvi, and G. N. Knoppers, eds. The Economy of Ancient Judah in its Historical Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns), in press.
What the Aramaic Documents Tell Us about the Achaemenid Administration of Empire, in J. Ma and C. Tuplin, eds. Arshama’s Peoples (Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University Press); in press.
Did Ezra Create Judaism? In Mayer Gruber, et. al. eds., Marbeh Hochma: FS Victor (Avigdor) Hurowitz; in press.
Artaxerxes’ Letter and the Mission of Ezra—noch einmal.” In FS Charles Krahmolkov (PhilipSchmitz, David Howard, Robert Miller II, eds.: AOAT; Ugarit-Verlag), in press.
Cyrus, Darius, and the House of the God Who Dwells in Jerusalem. In Ō Šābuhr kē čihr az yazdān dāšt: Essays in Memory of A. Shapur Shahbazi. Edited by Kamyar Abdi. Tehran and Persepolis: Iran University Press and Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation, in press.
The Torah of God as God: The Exaltation of the Written Law Code in Ezra-Nehemiah. In Nathan MacDonald and Izaak de Hulster, eds. Divine Presence and Absence in Exilic and Post-Exilic Judaism, Studies of the Sofja Kovalevskaja Research Group on Early Jewish Monotheism (FAT; Mohr Siebeck ), 2013:283-300.
Cyrus and the Ten Lost Tribes, FEZANA Journal 27 (2) 2013:35-9.
Deus ex Machina: The Role of the Prophetic Voice in Ezra 5:1. In Prophets and Prophecy in Ancient Israelite Historiography, M. J. Boda and L. M. Wray Beal (eds.) (Eisenbrauns: Winona Lake, IN), 2013:189-208.
The Role of the Governor in Persian Imperial Administration. In A. F. Botta, ed.; In the Shadow of Bezalel: Aramaic, Biblical, and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Bezalel Porten. (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East; Leiden, Brill), 2012:319-31.
The Law Triumphant: Another Look at 1 Esdras, in Making a Difference: Essays in Honor of Tamara C. Eskenazi, ed. Jacob L. Wright, David Clines and Kent Richards, (Sheffield: Sheffield-Phoenix Press), 2012:132-38.
Ezra’s Use of Documents in the Context of Hellenistic Rules of Rhetoric. In A New Perspective on Ezra-Nehemiah: Story and History, Literature and Interpretation, I. Kalimi, ed. (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns), 2012:11-26.
The Artaxerxes Correspondence of Ezra 4, Nehemiah’s Wall, and Persian Provincial Administration, in ‘Go Out and Study the Land’ (Judges 18:2): Archaeological, Historical and Textual Studies in Honor of Hanan Eshel. ( A. M. Maeir, J., Magness, and L. H., Schiffman, eds. Supplement to the Journal for the Study of Judaism. Leiden: Brill), 2011:35-58.
Why the Story of the Three Youths? In Was First Esdras First? An Investigation into the Nature and Priority of First Esdras. (Eadem, ed.; SBL Symposium Series; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature), 2011: 79-88.
Something There is That Doesn’t Love a Wall: The Crisis Created by the Wall Around Jerusalem. Transeuphratène 39 (2010) 77-87.
Because of the Dread Upon Them – Fear and Uncertainty in the Persian Empire. In The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East (Proceedings of a conference at the British Museum 29th September – 1st October 2005), John Curtis and St John Simpson (eds), (London: IBTauris Press), 2010: 457-69.
Temple Building in Ezra 1-6. In From the Foundations to the Crenellations: Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible, M. J. Boda and J. R. Novotny (eds.). AOAT (Ugarit-Verlag), 2010: 319-338.
The Concept of "Impure Birth" in Fifth Century Athens and Judea. In In the Wake of Tikva Frymer-Kensky: Tikva Frymer-Kensky Memorial Volume, R. H. Beal, S. Holloway and J. Scurlock, eds. (Gorgias Press), 2009:121-42.
Who Wrote Ezra-Nehemiah and Why Did They? In M. J. Boda and P. Redditt, Unity and Disunity in Ezra-Nehemiah. (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 17; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2008), 75-97.
From Xeno- Philia to -Phobia – Jewish Encounters with the Other. In Y. Levin, A Time of Change: Judah and its Neighbors During the Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods (London: T&T Clark, 2007), 179-204.
Did Second Temple High Priests Possess the Urim and Thummim? Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Volume 7: Article 3 (2007).
Shaving Joseph: The Historical Background of Genesis 41:14. BAR 33 (4) 2007: 36-41,74. Runner-up, Best of BAR.
The House of the God Who Dwells in Jerusalem. Review article of P. Bedford’s Temple Restoration in Early Achaemenid Judah, 2001, and of J. Schaper’s Priester und Leviten im achaëmenidischen Juda, 2000,” in JAOS 126 (2006) 89-102.
Historians Can Use the Scientific Method. Transeuphratène 31, 2006, 125-27.
The ‘Am Hā’āretz in Ezra 4:4 and Persian Imperial Administration, in O. Lipschits and M. Oeming, eds. Judah and Judaeans in the Achaemenid Period (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2006), 123-45.
A Greek Religious Association in Second Temple Judah? A Comment on Nehemiah 10, Transeuphratène 30 (2005): 77-96.
A Silver Coin of Yohanan Hakkôhen. Transeuphratène 26 (2003): 65-85, Pls. II-V.
A Governor of Byblos from Sippar. N.A.B.U. 36 (2003).
The Land Lay Desolate: Conquest and Restoration in the Ancient Near East, in O. Lipschits and J. Blenkinsopp, Judah and Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2003), 21-54.
Cyrus the Messiah? The Historical Background to Isaiah 45:1. Harvard Theological Review 95 (2002): 373-93. Also published as “Cyrus the Messiah.” Bible Review 19.5 (2003): 26-33, 44.
The High Places (Bāmôt) and the Reforms of Hezekiah and Josiah: An Archaeological Investigation. Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (2002): 437-65.
The Political Struggle of Fifth-Century Judah. Transeuphratène 24 (2002): 61-73.
You Shall Appoint Judges: Ezra’s Mission and the Rescript of Artaxerxes, in J. W. Watts, Persia and Torah: The Theory of Imperial Authorization of the Pentateuch, SBL Symposium Series (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2001): 63-89.
(With D. N. Freedman) “Was there a Jubilee Year in pre-Exilic Judah?” Excursus in J. Milgrom, Leviticus 23-27, Anchor Bible (2001):2257-70.
Toward the Ur-Text of Esther. JSOT 88 (2000) 49-57.
Review of Erhard S Gerstenberger, Israel in the Persian Period: The Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E. translated by Siegfried S. Schatzmann. Biblical Encyclopedia, vol.8. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011. Pp. xviii + 575. $65.95 (paper), to appear in JAOS.
Review of Willa M. Johnson, The Holy Seed Has Been Defiled: The Interethnic Marriage Dilemma in Ezra 9-10. Hebrew Bible Monographs, 33; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2011; JHS, 13, rev. 40.
Review of C. Cohen, V. (A.) Hurowitz, A. Hurvitz, Y. Muffs, B. Schwartz, and J. Tigay’s, Birkat Shalom: Studies in the Bible, Ancient Near Eastern Literature, and Postbiblical Judaism Presented to Shalom Paul on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2008), JNES 72 (2013) 297-8.
Review of J. Blenkinsopp’s Judaism: The First Phase. The Place of Ezra and Nehemiah in the Origins of Judaism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2009), JAOS 131.2 (2011) 308-9.
Review of K. M. Stott, Why Did They Write This Way? Reflections on References to Written Documents in the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Literature. (Library of Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament Studies 492; New York: T&T Clark, 2008), JHS (2010) Vol. 10.
Review of J. L. Berquist’s Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. Semeia Studies 50 (2007), JAOS 129.4 (2009) 688-90.
Review of Melody D. Knowles, Centrality Practiced: Jerusalem in the Religious Practice of Yehud and the Diaspora in the Persian Period (Archaeology and Biblical Studies, 16; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006), JAOS 128.1 (2008): 161-2.
Review of Oded Lipschits, The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005), JAOS 128.1 (2008):162-4.
Review of S. Scholz, Introducing the Women’s Hebrew Bible (Introductions in Feminist Theology 13; London: T&T Clark, 2007), in Hebrew Studies 49 (2008) 101-103.
Review of M. E. Stevens, Temples, Tithes, and Taxes: The Temple and the Economic Life of Ancient Israel (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 2006) in Interpretation 61 (2007):447-8.
Review of Sefer Moshe: the Moshe Weinfeld Jubilee Volume. Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East, Qumran, ad Post-Biblical Judaisms. Edited by H. Cohen, A. Hurvitz, and S. Paul, Journal of the American Oriental Society 125 (2005):339-40.
Review of D. S. Vanderhooft’s The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets, Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59 (Scholars Press, 1999), JAOS 122 (2002): 592-93.
Review of Rethinking the Foundations. Historiography in the Ancient World and in the Bible. Essays in Honour of John Van Seters, S. McKenzie, T. Roëmer, and H. Schmid, Eds. (De Gruyter), JAOS, 122, (2002): 135-36.
Review of Paul Heger’s Three Biblical Altar Laws, AJS Review 26 (2002): 109-11.
“Review of Edward Ball’s In Search of True Wisdom: Essays in Old Testament Interpretation in Honour of Ronald E. Clements (JSOT Sup., Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999),” in M. A. Sweeney, ed. RBL 2001: 208-11.
“Review of Henry McKeating’s The Book of Jeremiah (Epworth Commentaries),” RBL, 2001: 208-11.
Encyclopedia and Dictionary Entries:
Cyrus the Great, in The Oxford Dictionary of the Bible, M. Coogan, ed, in press.
Esdras, First Book of. New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (Abingdon Press, in press).
Commentary on Pekudey – Another View. In Reform Jewish Women’s Torah Commentary (New York: URJ Press, 2007), 560.
Commentary on Parashat Shemini. In Reform Jewish Women’s Torah Commentary (New York: URJ Press, 2007), 615-29.
4Q117 – 4QEzra, The Open Scrolls Project, www.openscrolls.org.
“Levites,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, 2000: 803-04.
“Levi,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, 2000: 802-03.
“Kohath,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, 2000: 778.
“Merari,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, 2000:885.
“Reader’s Guide to Chronicles,” in Readers’ Guide to Judaism, 2000: 115-16.
“Reader’s Guide to Ezra, Nehemiah,” in Readers’ Guide to Judaism, 2000: 176-177.
Presentations and Invited Addresses:
“The Mass Divorce in Judah and Persian Imperial Administration,” Invited Address, Society of Biblical Literature, San Diego, Nov. 2014.
“No King in Judah? The Mass Divorce under Ezra and Nehemiah,” Invited Address, Conference on Political Memory during and after the Persian Empire, Babylon ERC project, Leiden, 18-20 June, 2014
“The Temple Construction Narrative in Ezra 1-6,” Invited Address, Society of Biblical Literature, Baltimore, Nov. 2013.
“Allotment of Depopulated Land in the Achaemenid Empire,” Invited Address, European Society of Biblical Studies, Leipzig, July 2013.
“Inside a Persian Garrison: Achaemenid Egypt as Seen through the Elephantine Papyri.” Invited address, Conference on Arshama and Achaemenid Egypt. Oxford, UK, July 5-7, 2011.
“The Role of Empire in the Authorization of Torah-Law.” Invited address, SBL-International Meeting, London, July, 2011.
“Did YHWH Dwell in the Second Temple?” Invited address, Conference on Reflecting upon Divine Presence and Absence in the Exile and Persian Period (Göttingen, May 12-15 2011).
"Persian Administration of Empire: The Egyptian and Bactrian Evidence.” Invited addresses at the Universität Freiburg, Freiburg Switzerland, and at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany, May 2011.
“Ezra ben Seraiah, Emissary of the Great King: Torah, Data’, and the Mission of Ezra.” Invited Address, Conference in Honor of Baruch A. Levine, New York University, Nov. 8, 2010
“‘Something There is That Doesn’t Love a Wall’: The Crisis Created by the Wall Around Jerusalem.” Invited Address. VIIIe Colloque International sur la Transeuphratène à l’Époque perse: Crises et autres difficultés. 8-10 April, 2010.
“Implications of 5th and 4th Century Documents for Understanding the Role of the Governor in Persian Imperial Administration.” Invited address for a Plenary Session at the World Congress of Jewish Studies XV, Jerusalem, 2009.
“Deus ex Machina: The Role of the Prophetic Voice in Ezra 5:1.” Invited address to the Canadian Society for Biblical Studies, May 24-26 at Carleton University, Ottawa, ON.
“Who Said Jews Can’t Intermarry Anyway?”, invited address at Beth Israel Congregation, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Dec. 2008.
“My Father was a Wandering Aramean: Ethnic Identity at Elephantine and in Persian Period Yehud.” Society of Biblical Literature, Nov. 2008, Boston.
“Who Was a Jew? Perceptions of Ethnic Identity at Elephantine,” Bar Ilan Conference on Ethnic Identity in Antiquity; June 26, 2008, Bar Ilan, Israel.
“The Concept of "Impure Birth" in Fifth Century Athens and Judea.” Memorial Panel for Tikva Frymer-Kenski. Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting, San Diego, Nov. 2007.
“Why the Story of the Three Youths, i.e., Why 1st Esdras?” Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting, San Diego, Nov. 2007.
“Prophetic Foundations of Jewish Culture,” invited address to the Seminar on Foundations of Jewish Culture, University of Michigan, September 19, 2006.
“Yohanan Hakkohen, A Second-Temple Priest with Urim and Thummim,” Society of Biblical Literature’s 125th Anniversary Program; The 2005 Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, Nov. 2005.
“Because of the Dread Upon Them.” The World of the Achaemenid Empire – Conference of the Iran Heritage Foundation, London, September 29- October 1, 2005.
“From Optimism to Doubt – Jewish Encounters with the Other.” Session on Jewish Responses to Hellenism in the 4th Century BCE, World Congress of Jewish Studies, Jerusalem, July 31-Aug. 4, 2005. Invited address.
“Respondent on a Panel Discussion of my The Priest and the Great King.” Persian Period Group. National Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, San Antonio, TX, Nov. 2004. Invited respondent.
“The Status of Megiddo in the Persian Empire.” The Megiddo Excavations, Israel, July 2004. Invited address.
“Who Wrote Ezra-Nehemiah? And Why Did They?” Paper presented at the National Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, Nov. 2003, Atlanta.
“A Religious Association in Second Temple Judah? A Comment on Nehemiah 10,” VIéme Colloque International sur La Transeuphratène à L’Époque Perse, Paris, November 6-8, 2003. Invited address.
“The Role of the Temple in the Achaemenid Empire,” 2003 International SBL, Cambridge England, July 20-25.
“The ‘Am Ha’Aretz and Achaemenid Imperial Policy,” Conference on Judah and Judaeans in the Achaemenid Period, Heidelberg, July 16-18, 2003. Invited address.
“The Rise to Power of the Judaean Priesthood: The Impact of the Achaemenid Empire,” January 16, 2003, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Invited address.
“Priests and Politics in a Persian Province,” January 17, 2003, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be’er Sheva. Invited address.
“The ‘People of the Land’ – A New Look,” Annual Conference of the Association of Jewish Studies, Los Angeles, December, 2002.
“Response to ‘Cult, Priesthood, and Temple’,” International Conference on the 6th Century BCE: Between Myth and Reality, Tel Aviv, May, 2001. Invited respondent.
“You Shall Appoint Judges: Ezra’s Mission and the Rescript of Artaxerxes,” National Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, Nashville, Nov. 2000.
“Cyrus, the Messiah? The Historical Background to Isaiah 45:1,” Presented at the National Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, Nashville, Nov. 2000.
“Cyrus and the Priests of Marduk,” Presented at the Midwest Meeting of The American Oriental Society, Chicago, 2000.
“An Achaemenid Governor in Jerusalem’s Court,” Presented at the Society of Iranian Studies Biennial Conference, Bethesda, May, 1998.
“The High Places (Bāmôt) and the Reforms of Hezekiah and Josiah,” National Meeting of the American Oriental Society, New Orleans, April, 1998.
“The Political Struggle in Fifth Century Judah,” Presented at the AAR/SBL Annual Meeting, San Francisco, November, 1997.
"Third Isaiah and the Zadokite Priesthood." Presented at the AAR/SBL Annual Meeting, Kansas City, November, 1991.
“Third Isaiah and the Temple Cult: A New Interpretation of Isaiah 66:3-4a.” AAR/SBL Midwest Region. Chicago, February, 1991.
Books, Articles, and Reviews in Preparation:
Nehemiah, a new translation with Introduction and Commentary (Hebrew Bible Monographs Series; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press).
“The Nehemiah Memoir and Covenant Renewal,” Review article of T. Reinmuth’s Der Bericht Nehemias. Zur literarischen Eigenart, traditionsgeschichtliche Prägung und innerbiblischen Rezeption des Ich-Berichts Nehemias, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, vol. 183, 2002, and M. W. Duggan’s The Covenant Renewal in Ezra-Nehemiah (Neh 7:72B-10:40). An Exegetical, Literary, and Theological Study,” SBL Dissertation Series 184, 2001), review article to appear in JAOS.
Courses Taught – Washtenaw Community College Emeritus Program:
The Ancient Jewish Novel in its Literary Context
Apocalyptic and its Prophetic Antecedents
The Book of Enoch and its Reflections in the Biblical Text
The Book of Isaiah in its Historical and Literary Setting
The Changing Face of Jesus – The Historical Jesus and the Jesus Reflected in the Gospels
The Dead Sea Scrolls in their Historical and Literary Context
Ezra in History and Tradition
Ezra-Nehemiah – In History and Tradition
History of the Afterlife in Western Tradition.
Introduction to the Bible in its World
Introduction to the Torah/Pentateuch and the Documentary Hypothesis
Introduction to the Writing Prophets in their World (a three term course)
Hosea, Amos, First Isaiah in their world
Jeremiah, Ezekiel in their world
Second Isaiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi in their world
Judea Under Roman Rule
Killing for God – the View from the Bible and the Ancient Near East
Myths You Missed – the Myths of Ancient Mesopotamia
The Real Paul – Creator of Christianity
The Stories of Genesis in their Ancient Near Eastern Setting
Tours of Hell in Ancient Imagination
The Twelve Minor Prophets in their Literary and Historical Setting
Why Bad Things Happen to Good People – The View from the Bible
and the Ancient Near East
Writing and Reading the Torah in Ancient Israel